A large part of neuroscience research is based on the premise that scientists may unravel clues to understanding diseases of the nervous system, with hopes that such endeavors may one day lead to treatment and cures. Application of sophisticated techniques from molecular biology and genetics is enabling exciting advances along these paths. Faculty are focusing in a number of strong research areas. Work by several faculty is aimed at understanding the cellular and genomic processes associated with cell death and neuroprotection in conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, eye disease, ischemia, and also in the normal aging process. Another active group is involved in the promising area of cell and gene therapy, including embryonic stem cell research, which was pioneered here at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Other important represented areas include epilepsy and disorders of myelination, such as multiple sclerosis, as well as research on pain mechanisms and cardiac arrhythmia. Research on disorders of emotional and mental health are also well represented on campus, with scientists examining the neural basis of depression, anxiety and sleep disorders, schizophrenia, and addictions. Problems are investigated with a wide range of approaches, ranging from cellular and molecular methodologies to whole brain neuroimaging applications such as functional MRI.